Depression Causes and Symptoms, Depressive disorder
Depression refers to a condition in which overall mental functions such as the content of thought, thought process, motivation, motivation, interest, behavior, sleep, and physical activity are continuously deteriorated and adversely affect daily life. The depressed state in psychiatry does not mean that the mood is temporarily reduced during this process. It is natural and healthy to be happy when there is something pleasant, and sad when something is sad.
Causes of Depression:
The definitive cause of depression is not yet clear. However, like other mental illnesses, various biochemical, genetic, and environmental factors are said to cause depression.
① Biochemical factors It
is said that neurotransmitters (norepinephrine, serotonin, GABA, etc.) and hormones (thyroid, growth hormone, hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal cortex axis) in the brain are related to changes in biorhythms.
② Genetic factors In
the case of identical twins, if one person has major depression, the other person is 50% more likely to develop depression. Therefore, it is clear that genetic factors play a major role in the development of depression. However, factors that are not described as genetic factors also affect the development of depression. To date, no genetic abnormalities have been consistently reported in relation to major depressive disorder.
③ Environmental factors
Stress alone does not cause major depression. However, stress is said to affect the manifestation of depression symptoms. A situation that is difficult to cope with in life becomes an environmental factor in causing depression. Examples include losing a loved one, economic problems, and strong stress.
Symptom of Depression
The characteristics of pathological depression that require treatment are: This depression is different from normal depression.
① Depression symptoms last longer than 2 weeks.
If you’re temporarily depressed, you usually get better in a few days. However, if this condition lasts longer than 2 weeks, treatment is required.
② Appetite and sleep problems are serious.
I have no appetite, so I can’t eat at all. I can hardly sleep. This severe appetite and sleep problem is important evidence that you need medication.
③ Subjective pain is severe.
Depressed patients feel that it is very difficult to endure the psychological pain of depression on their own. If you have a pessimistic expectation that this condition will continue to heal, pray for suicide. In this case, you should no longer try to recover by yourself, but you should seek help from a psychiatrist.
④ There are serious obstacles to fulfilling social and professional roles.
I’m very worried that many things won’t work in a depressed state, but I’m very poor at performing. If a homemaker cannot afford to live at all, or if the student is unable to study, she should be considered as having treatment.
⑤ When hallucinations and delusions accompany
Depression In some cases , psychological symptoms such as hallucinations or delusions may accompany you. In this case, the risk of self-harm is high, so treatment is recommended regardless of the severity of depressive symptoms.
⑥ If suicide accident persists
Diagnosis of Depression
Major depression is diagnosed by interviewing a mental health doctor and listening to a medical history and confirming that the patient’s condition meets the diagnostic criteria. During this process, psychological tests can supplement the information you need, such as whether other mental illnesses coexist or not. To discriminate secondary depression caused by other physical ailments, hematologic and brain imaging tests may be done.
The main criteria for diagnosis of depression (DSM-IV) are:
① Depressed mood that lasts more than 2 weeks, almost every day
② Decreases interest and interest in most daily tasks
③ Decreases or increases appetite (loss or increase in weight, more than 5% per month)
④ Insomnia or excessive sleep
⑤ Delayed or mental movement Irritation of exercise
⑥ Reduction of tiredness or energy
⑦ Feelings of worthlessness, improper guilt
⑧ Poor concentration, indecision
⑨ Repetitive suicidal thoughts
There are 5 or more of the above-mentioned symptoms (including one or more of 1 and 2), and if these symptoms seriously interfere with daily life, you can be diagnosed with depression.
Cure of Depression
Depression treatment methods include medication and psychotherapy.
① Drug treatment
Most antidepressants currently used have similar efficacy. It begins to take effect after 2-3 weeks of drug administration, and usually after 4-6 weeks, it is effective. If the drug is used in sufficient doses for a sufficient period of time, it will work in 2/3 of the patients.
Even if symptoms of depression improve with medication, you should continue medication for about 6 months to prevent recurrence. There is no particular danger to the body even if the drug is used for a long time. It is also rarely addictive.
② Psychotherapy (Psychotherapy)
This is a treatment method to control the current symptoms by improving the ability to cope with the stress that caused depression. Not only that, it has the effect of intervening so that depression does not recur. Efficient psychotherapy not only cures depression, but also improves overall mental health, leading to a more satisfying life than before.
③ Electroconvulsive therapy
One of the most effective treatments for depression. The effect is very fast compared to other treatments, so you can expect the treatment effect in a few days to 1-2 weeks. Complications are less likely to occur. It is used when there is a high risk of suicide, when the body is debilitating, and rapid treatment is needed, and when there is no response to antidepressants.
④ Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS)
When the brain is stimulated by transcranial magnetic stimulation , excitatory or inhibitory effects appear through a series of complex processes. The technical principle of transcranial magnetic stimulation is to excite nerve cells in the cerebrum when a short, strong current is applied to a coil to cause a rapidly changing magnetic field, which in turn stimulates the human scalp by inducing an electric field. It is used for therapeutic purposes in patients with various mental and nervous system diseases. It is known to be effective against depression.